Anyone remember Nazi super-science? You know, the science for when ordinary super-science isn’t evil enough. I’m not talking about atomic Nazi super-soldiers led by Zombie Robo-Hitler. I’m talking real Nazi ‘super-science’ of the early 1940s – the ‘secret weapons’ Hitler insisted would win the war.
Of course there were a couple of problems. One was that by the time the Nazis ordered German industry to build ‘super’ weapons, the war had already been lost – the tipping point came in mid-1943 when Hitler broke his own army trying to take Kursk against the advice of his generals. The Eastern Front was the decisive front of the war; after the Germans lost Kursk it was only a matter of time before superior Allied production was able to fuel a Soviet drive west.
The other problem was that Nazi super-weapons weren’t very ‘super’, even by 1940s standards. Hitler and his cronies thought they were. But what can you expect from people for whom conviction trumped reason? A regime convinced of their own destiny, buoyed by their sense of exceptionalism, and where state power pivoted around a tight integration of industrial complex with economy and government.
The main thing the Nazis were good at was evil – epitomised by one of the nastiest super-weapons their science devised; pure methamphetamine (‘P’), exploiting the prior discovery of pep-pills. This was the outcome of their quest to find a drug that could turn their own soldiers into psychotic killers immune to pain, no matter how much damage the drug did. It was actually used in 1944 by the Waffen SS as a combat aid. Alas, the recipe didn’t die with the Nazi regime – meaning ‘P’ is actually a Nazi drug. Uh – thanks, Adolf, Heinrich, et al. Yet another legacy you’re still inflicting on the world.
The Nazis also encouraged rocketry, thanks to Werhner von Braun, an honorary SS Lieutenant and member of the Nazi party who was responsible, later, for America’s Saturn V Moon rockets. The problem was that the V2 missile project soaked up colossal resources – and lives. More people died making von Braun’s missile than were killed by it. But the rocket was pushed by Hitler’s regime anyway – a symptom of ‘conviction mentality’ presented as ‘logic’ and ‘reason’.
Other Nazi super-weapons that soaked up more than they delivered included August Cönders’ V3 ‘Fleißiges Lieschen’ ultra-long-range gun, which never worked; and Ferdinand Porsche’s Maus 188 tonne tank, which was too heavy for most bridges. That was dwarfed by Edward Grotte’s 1000-tonne ‘Ratte’ land battleship armed with 11-inch naval guns and powered by U-boat motors. Hitler was a fan, but Albert Speer cancelled that particular expression of Nazi megalomania in 1943, before it got to hardware.
Super-weapons that did work included the Fritz-X TV-guided bomb that sank the Italian battleship Roma in 1943, and a plethora of jet and rocket fighter designs since beloved of the “Luftwaffe 1946” fantasy brigade. Of these, the Me-262 made it to combat in 1944-45. These jets were about 100 mph faster than the best Allied piston-engined fighters, such as the P-51 Mustang flown by Chuck Yeager – but he shot down an Me-262 anyway, and damaged two others at the same time for good measure. That’s not hyperbole – here’s his combat report of 6 November 1944.
The Nazis also deployed the Tiger II tank, underpowered but with gun and armour comparable with Cold War tanks into the early 1960s. And other stuff, like tapered-barrel guns – since standard – and automatic rifles.
All of which, Hitler insisted, would win the war. They didn’t, partly because the real arbiter was industrial scale. In a war of attrition, Germany couldn’t build enough super-weapons that did work to make a difference, and the ones that didn’t soaked up resources. It has to be said that the Allies also pursued dead-ends, such as the giant Panjandrum – but to nothing like the Nazi extent.
Even so, the Allies had it all over the Germans when it came to super-weapons. Starting with the atomic bomb, the most powerful weapon in the history of the world. The German effort failed partly because their competent physicists fled to the United States in the face of Nazi persecution, partly because the Nazi bomb program was never fully resourced.
The Allies built two other key war-winning devices – effective radar, based on the British cavity magnetron, and the first radar proximity fuse for anti-aircraft work – using thermionic valve technology. General Electric did it to a design by British scientist Sir Samuel Curran. As Vannevar Bush pointed out, that fuse was decisive in key ways. The Nazis? Rheinmetal’s parallel effort was cancelled.
That’s apart from Allied jet development which paralleled the German – the British had the Gloster Meteor and the Americans the Lockheed P-80. The difference was that the Allies didn’t prioritise them. The RAF whipped the Meteor into service to help meet the V1 threat, but industry otherwise focussed on existing weapons, which they could build in overwhelming numbers. And so – fortunately – the west won the Second World War.
Copyright © Matthew Wright 2014