If we are to explore some of the woo woo that’s been peddled about perfectly ordinary – and hugely spectacular – things on the planet, like ancient pyramids or apparently mysterious rock formations, I guess the first port of call is to understand why these things get turned into mysteries in the first place.
Some 20 km east of Lake Taupo in New Zealand’s North Island is a curious natural structure known as the ‘Kaimanawa Wall’. It’s made of ignimbrite and was formed by a pyroclastic flow that rolled across this part of New Zealand some 330,000 years ago. As the flow cooled, it split in a way that left the exposed side of the flow looking remarkably like a stone wall.
Needless to say, the fact that it looks like a stone wall has meant, to various ‘independent thinkers’, that it therefore is one, thus ‘proving’ that an ancient civilisation existed in New Zealand. The total lack of any actual evidence of such an entity hasn’t stopped them. Nor does the hard scientific data, which shows its natural origins. That’s rejected because, after all, the wall is obviously a wall.
It’s a style of thinking I have a hard job fathoming.
Modern scientific thinking runs something like this. There are hidden truths behind the superficial appearance of most things, the issue is finding out what they are. So we look at the ‘Kaimanawa Wall’, hypothesise that it might be an artificial structure, and the first question is whether that is literally true. We test the hypothesis, carefully investigating the material it’s made of and its context, to discover what lies beneath the superficial appearance – its composition, age and so forth. From that emerges the actual story of its origins – origins which, I might add, are consistent with the known geology of the era.
The ‘woo brigade’, on the other hand, also assume that there are hidden truths behind what they see up front, but have a very different idea about how these truths are hidden. They look at the ‘Kaimanawa Wall’, note the similarity to an artificial structure on the face of it, and take that to be a literal and immutable truth. No testing is needed, because it seems self-evident, and from that assumption flows questions about how such a structure might have been built.
It’s a kind of logic that was used by Medieval monks and other thinkers of a millennium or more ago – the world we see is literally what it seems, and points to hidden truths that can be discovered not by experimentation, but by deductive logic. The approach was superseded by the very different thinking of the Early Modern period and the Age of Reason.
The consequence is that the woo brigade assume that the literal appearance of many of the apparently ‘mysterious’ artefacts and structures around the world reveals the actuality of what they see, and do not question the conclusions that follow. But if that initial premise is in fact not true, then the whole chain of logic they build after that breaks down – because it’s built on a faulty assumption.
That, of course, is why modern scientific method demands that we have to test that first assumption, as the very first port of call.
The other point is that woo offers simple certainties; anybody can ‘get’ the obvious literal answers it provides. And that’s attractive.
I’ve gone into this in some detail because it explains a good deal about how ‘woo’ gets traction in terms of various apparent archaeological mysteries and phenomena, around the world. More on this soon.
As for the ‘Kaimanawa Wall’ – well, the main problem with the woo brigade here isn’t that they think it’s artificial. It’s the rest of what follows – a fantasy construction about ancient ‘pre-Maori’ civilisations in New Zealand that inevitably ends up being tangled up with the assumption that these imaginary ‘pre-Maori’ settlers were ‘Celtic’. Dog-whistle code, in short, for some extremely unpalatable present-day bigotry.
The take-home facts? The ‘Kaimanawa Wall’, a natural formation, was already ancient around 1280 AD when New Zealand became the last large land mass in the world to be settled by humans. These settlers probably landed on the Wairau Bar, were probably preceded by exploratory voyages, and were Polynesians who came from the Cook and Marquesas islands. This has been established beyond doubt from a wide range of disparate evidence – genetic, linguistic, archaeological and so forth. No humans existed in New Zealand before then – evidenced, among other things, by the fact that the original flora and fauna were untouched when the Polynesians arrived, but succumbed quickly soon afterwards in the last of the great Pleistocene collisions. A distinctly ‘Maori’ culture emerged indigenously from the Polynesian settlements during the fifteenth century, a turbulent time of significant culture change.
All this is well established – as, indeed, is the origin of the ‘Kaimanawa Wall’. No woo required.
Copyright © Matthew Wright 2015